First Round in Turkey's Presidential Election

By Zeynep Önal Aytaç


Turkey has experienced one of the most important elections on the 100th anniversary of the republic. Under rising competitive authoritarianism, democratic backsliding and economic crisis, the main opposition block united its powers against Erdogan for this existential election. On the other side, Erdogan and his ultra-Islamist, nationalists partners have employed populist right rhetoric and benefitted from state sources which they have enjoyed for the last 20 years. However, the presidential race could not be finished in the first round. Neither Erdogan nor his main rival Kilicdaroglu reached half of the votes, so Turkish people will go to the ballot box one more time and make their final choice on May 28.


Kuwait's Invasion: The United Nations Authorization for the Use of Force

By Clare Vecino Prieto


On 2 August 1990, Saddam Hussein's Iraq invaded Kuwait. The international response to the Iraqi invasion marked a turning point in the UN Security Council's authorisation of the use of force. The international community jointly condemned the invasion. As a result, the UN demanded the immediate withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwait. In the absence of a response, the Security Council passed two resolutions, 678 and 687, which would mark a new era in the authorisation of the legitimate use of force.  Therefore, throughout this article, we will first look at the causes that led Iraq to invade Kuwait, followed by an explanation of the UN Security Council's action, and finally, analyze that action to understand the extent to which the Security Council changed the way it acted in terms of collective security.


The Central African Republic: How Peacekeeping Has Failed But Peacebuilding Is Still Needed

By Maia Brener


The Central African Republic is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, and the Economic Community of Central African States. The country has been in a state of civil war since 2013 when a coalition of rebel groups known as the Seleka overthrew the government. The conflict in the Central African Republic has had devastating effects on the country’s population. Hundreds of thousands of people have been displaced, and the country’s economy has been severely harmed. As, the conflict has led to a deterioration in the rule of law, with widespread human rights abuses being committed by all sides that are involved in the conflict.



The Unspoken Apartheid: How the Chinese Government is Conducting an Ethnic Cleansing of the Uighurs

By Maia Brener


The Uighurs are a minority Muslim ethnic group living in the northwestern Chinese province of Xinjiang. They have a distinct culture, language, and history from the majority Han Chinese population. From as far back as 2013 this group has been sent to what are called “vocational training camps,” which have been found to essentially be prisons or concentration camps. Here, they are allegedly forced to learn Chinese, tortured, experimented on, and even killed. This essay will explore the condition of the Uighurs in China, the reasons behind their persecution, and will go into what the European Union is doing to help the Uighurs.



Goulash Cosmopolitanism

Victor Orban’s ‘Hungary for Hungarians’ Migration Policy


By Sebastian Berchesan


Following the return to power of Viktor Orban in 2010, Hungarian politics has taken a nationalist turn that led to the current illiberal path the country is following. The European-wide migration crisis of 2015 has shifted the Hungarian public’s attention towards immigrants, presenting them as a serious threat to the internal stability and the traditional values of the country. Since then, the rhetoric of the Orban-led government focused on two main directions: keeping non-European migrants out of the country and strengthening the relations with the ethnic Hungarians living abroad. While closing the doors to migrants who could represent a substantial and reliable workforce, the nation’s economy shows worrying signs of recession. In this context, Prime Minister Viktor Orban is calling for the Hungarians born and living outside of the state borders to join the nation’s political cause by enabling them to easily get citizenship and vote during elections. While taking on this double approach, the Hungarian leader aims to maximise his political support while delivering a simple but essential promise: a Hungary for Hungarians. This article analyses the premises of the strategy behind the Hungarian Migration Policy while questioning its sustainability in the long run.



A Push towards the 2024 European Parliamentary Elections

Stay tuned here and on our social media as we kick off the "Make Your Vote!" project, as part of the European Commission's CERV Programme

Credits: Michael Swan via Creative Commons

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